*Electronic Supplement:*Figures of hypocenter locations of the induced seismicity below Basel and of seismograms showing the degree of similarity among signals.

Electronic Supplement:List of all local earthquakes used in the study with calculated local magnitudes and associated magnitude error.

]]>*Electronic Supplement:*Tables of injection volumes and seismicity parameters, and figure of monthly distribution of seismic events and location of fluid injection sites in the vicinity of the 17 August 2015 *M*_{w} 4.6 event.

Electronic Supplement:Empirical and synthetic data, model parameters, and geological figures.

]]>Electronic Supplement:Table of main terrace surface and basal contact offset measurements, figure describing an unrealistic faulting scenario, and a KML file with the fault-trace mapping spanning the Lower Rhine graben.

]]>*Electronic Supplement:*Figures of waveform comparison and the synthetic test for spatial resolution.

Electronic Supplement:Figures showing frequency content of detections.

]]>*Electronic Supplement:*Figure of measured data, the vertical-component stack used in deconvolution, and the resultant vertical, radial, and tangential transfer functions.

Finally, to obtain the effective elastic parameters, we used the equivalence of the unambiguous potency form and the moment tensor form of the representation theorems constrained with the boundary conditions, which are the continuity of the traction acting on the fault and the tangential strain across the fault. A unique solution is obtained for the isotropic case as well as transversely isotropic and orthotropic media if the symmetry axes of the tensors are aligned with the fault orientation. However, for general anisotropy or arbitrarily oriented structures, the solution is nonunique, for which certain physical constraints such as positive definiteness of the elasticity tensor can be used to confine the solution.

]]>Electronic Supplement:Figures showing summary of detection results and polar plots of correlation estimates and phase velocity with respective to azimuth.

]]>Electronic Supplement:Tables containing station parameters, including location and depth, as well as calculated orientation for the H1 component of the broadband sensors.

]]>Electronic Supplement:Table listing the "Priorities for Action" outlined for disaster risk reduction under the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction accomplished through the Parcel Mapping Project.

]]>The analysis of the recordings in the center of the basin shows an anticorrelation between amplification and duration lengthening, that is, maxima (resp. minima) of GDDL correspond to minima (resp. maxima) of SSR. The maxima of GDDL are also found to coincide with those of SSR variability. This is confirmed by the analysis of the synthetics, which also reveals a pronounced north–south asymmetry of both amplification and duration lengthening caused by nonisotropic excitation of surface waves at the basin edges. We find that all estimates of site response depend on source location and that EHVR is also strongly sensitive to energy partitioning in the analyzed wavefield. We quantify the source-related variability of each estimate, discuss the biases in site response estimation using incomplete source catalogs, and investigate whether the azimuthal dependence of site response can be identified in the recordings.

*Electronic Supplement:*Movies of simulated wave propagation, figures of surface-to-downhole standard spectral ratio (SSR), group delay duration lengthening (GDDL), earthquake horizontal-to-vertical ratio (EHVR), and synthetic waveforms.

Electronic Supplement:Animations of displacement and stress.

]]>*Electronic Supplement:*Earthquake catalog.

*Electronic Supplement:*Tables of regression coefficients for the high-quality (HQ) model and 95% confidence intervals for model’s coefficients and MATLAB implementation of the ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE).

*Electronic Supplement:*Lists of the events and stations considered in the final dataset and derived coefficients of the functional form.

*Electronic Supplement:*Python script to compute the multivariate logarithmic score for a hierarchical lognormal ground-motion model.

To this end, we simulated a large number of equally likely scenario events for three earthquake magnitudes (*M*_{w} 7.0, 6.0, and 5.0) and various source-to-site distances. The variability of the explored synthetic ground motion is heteroscedastic, with smaller values for larger earthquakes. The standard deviation is comparable with empirical estimates for smaller events and reduces by 30%–40% for stronger earthquakes.

We then illustrate how to incorporate directivity effects into probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis (PSHA). This goal is pursued by calibrating a set of synthetic GMPEs and reducing their aleatory variability (~50%) by including a predictive directivity term that depends on the apparent stress parameter obtained through the simulation method. Our results show that, for specific source-to-site configurations, the nonergodic PSHA is very sensitive to the additional epistemic uncertainty that may augment the exceedance probabilities when directivity effects are maximized.

The proposed approach may represent a suitable way to compute more accurate hazard estimates.

*Electronic Supplement:*Histograms of synthetic peak ground accelerations (PGAs) and peak ground velocities (PGVs).

In our study, we propose and implement exactly this combination. It allows an upper bounding of the sensitivities involved in PSHA globally and, therefore, an identification of the noninfluential and the most important uncertain inputs. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that derivative-based GSA measures are combined with AD in practice. In addition, we show that first-order uncertainty propagation using the delta method can give satisfactory approximations of global sensitivity measures and allow a rough characterization of the model output distribution in the case of PSHA. An illustrative example is shown for the suggested derivative-based GSA of a PSHA that uses stochastic ground-motion simulations.

]]>*Electronic Supplement:*Description of the smoothing process, figures showing results for alternative fault geometry, other inversion tests and waveform comparisons, and a movie of wave propagation.

*Electronic Supplement:*Tables listing parameters of the splay fault and landslide scenarios, and figures showing deformation and coastal tsunami amplitudes from splay fault and landslide scenarios.