*Electronic Supplement:*Figures showing discretization, verification of the *DistanceDecayCubeSampler*, average simulated participation rate, and average cumulative magnitude–frequency distributions (MFDs).

Parkfield’s afterslip lasted much longer (~6–12 yrs) than afterslip following a 2014 **M** 6.0 event in Napa, California, where no interseismic creep was known, and its afterslip neared completion (~97% of *u*_{f}) by 1 yr. The uncertainty in *u*_{f} for the Napa event fell to ≤2 cm in only three months, versus in 2 yrs for the Parkfield event, mostly because duration of the power-law stage of afterslip at Parkfield is much longer, ~1000 (493–1666) days versus ~100 (35–421) days for Napa. Because the urban Hayward fault near San Francisco, California, like the Parkfield section, exhibits interseismic creep in a similar geological regime, significant afterslip might last for up to a decade following an anticipated **M**≥6.7 earthquake, potentially delaying postearthquake recovery.

*Electronic Supplement:*Tables of afterslip observations and coefficients for computing afterslip.

*Electronic Supplement:*Description of methods and figures of relocated aftershocks, interferograms, residuals, transformations, and seismic station locations.

*Electronic Supplement:*Tables of arrival time, figures of station registers, visualization of NonLinLoc (NLL) solution for the 1904 Alaska earthquake, distribution of depths of the posterior probability for the 1904 and 1935 events, epicenter and samples of the posterior probability distribution for the 1904 and 1935 earthquakes, map of southward shift of epicenters, and estimated epicenters for the 3 February 2000 Kaltag earthquake.

*Electronic Supplement:*Description of the test procedure of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) samples, and figure showing natural OSL decay curve, growth curves, and equivalent dose (De) distributions.

*Electronic Supplement:*Parallel ascending-orbit track coseismic deformation.

*Electronic Supplement:*Tables of hypocenter location and focal mechanisms and selection criteria for underthrusting events and figures showing the Gutenberg–Richter distribution, regional moment tensor inversion, spatial distribution of earthquake activity, and temporal distribution of underthrusting events.

The sensitivity of the interface scaling relationships is evaluated against geographic region (or subduction zone) and average dip along the rupture interface to assess the need for correction factors. Although regional perturbations in fault-rupture scaling could be identified, statistical significance analyses suggest there is little rationale for implementing regional correction factors based on the limited number of interface rupture models available for each region.

Fault-rupture-scaling relationships are also developed for intraslab (within the subducting slab), extensional outer-rise and offshore strike-slip environments. For these environments, the rupture width and area scaling properties yield smaller dimensions than interface ruptures for the corresponding magnitude. However, average and maximum slip metrics yield larger values than interface events. These observations reflect both the narrower fault widths and higher stress drops in these faulting environments. Although expressing significantly different rupture-scaling properties from earthquakes in subduction environments, the characteristics of offshore strike-slip earthquake ruptures compare similarly to commonly used rupture-scaling relationships for onshore strike-slip earthquakes.

*Electronic Supplement:*Table of rupture parameters.

*Electronic Supplement:*Figures of variation of regression residuals with *R*_{rup} for observed peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and spectral accelerations (SAs) and of regression residuals versus *V*_{S30}.

*Electronic Supplement:*Tables of station locations and peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and peak ground displacement (PGD) values; and figures of spectral ratios, band-pass filtered PGA, PGV, and PGD values, residuals, and comparison of PGAs for alternative model.

In this study, we simulated hybrid broadband time histories from selected earthquakes having magnitude *M*_{w}>7.0 in the Sea of Marmara within 10–20 km of Istanbul, the most probable scenarios for simulated generation of the devastating 1509 event in this region. Physics-based rupture scenarios, which may be an indication of potential future events, are adopted to estimate the ground-motion characteristics and its variability in the region. Two simulation techniques are used to compute a realistic time series, considering generic rock site conditions. The first is a full 3D wave propagation method used for generating low-frequency seismograms, and the second is a stochastic finite-fault model approach based on dynamic corner-frequency high-frequency seismograms. Dynamic rupture is generated and computed using a boundary integral equation method, and the propagation in the medium is realized through a finite-difference approach. The results from the two simulation techniques are then merged by performing a weighted summation at intermediate frequencies to calculate a broadband synthetic time series.

The simulated hybrid broadband ground motions are validated by comparing peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity (PGV), and spectral accelerations (5% damping) at different periods with the ground-motion prediction equations in the region. Our simulations reveal strong rupture directivity and supershear rupture effects over a large spatial extent, which generate extremely high near-fault motions exceeding the 250 cm/s PGV along the entire length of the ruptured fault.

]]>*Electronic Supplement:*Animations of the three components of the ground-motion models.

*Electronic Supplement:*Figures showing goodness-of-fit score versus peak ground acceleration (PGA) plots for all the nine KiK-net stations.

*Electronic Supplement:*Tables of classification of considered records and proposed pulse indicator (PI) index for records characterized as pulse-like.

*Electronic Supplement:*Figures of hypocentral distances, moment tensor (MT) solutions, and site terms from the ground-motion regression; and tables of velocity models and MT solutions.

*Electronic Supplement:*Table of earthquake parameters, performance of Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX), and specific performance evaluation of the 2(*t*_{S}–*t*_{P}) algorithm.

The eigenfunctions are used to expand an accelerogram. Drift-free consistent velocity and displacement time histories are then obtained, also in terms of the eigenfunctions, without direct integration and baseline correction. A method is also proposed to modify a real recorded accelerogram using the eigenfunctions to generate time histories compatible with the target response spectra without drift.

]]>*Electronic Supplement:*Figures of histograms of slip and rise time, waveform comparisons between data and synthetics, and slip velocity along the fault plane for a synthetic case, as well as for the 2011 *M*_{w} 7.1 Van, east Turkey, earthquake, and the 2010 *M*_{w} 7.2 El Mayor–Cucapah, Baja California, earthquake.

*Electronic Supplement:*Figure of stacks for four additional global stations.

*Electronic Supplement:*Table of dates of the trials used as well as *Q*–*Q* plots for the statistics collected from the sensor tests.